The Holy Prophet Saw
The hour of the manifestation of Aminah’s light was fast approaching and the days of her delivery were near. She lived in the Valley of Bani Hashim and was anxiously waiting for her child to enter the light of this world, to rejuvenate the memory of her deceased husband and thus become a source of tranquillity and solace for her ever grief-stricken heart. Thus, twenty five days following the occurrence of the Ashabul-Fil1 the Holy Prophet(saw) was born on 12 Rabi’ul-Awwal, corresponding to the 20th of August 570 AD, or according to recent and perhaps more authentic research, 9 Rabi’ul-Awwal2, corresponding to the 20th of April 571 AD. It was a Monday morning.3
The fact that the birth of the Holy Prophet(saw) so closely coincides to the occurrence of ‘the elephant’ is, in itself, a clear indication from God that, just as He rendered vain the physical attack upon the Ka‘bah, similarly it was the time when falsehood and vain worship would also be wiped out in a confrontation with the ultimate divine religion. It seems as if the Holy Qur’an has also mentioned the attack of the Ashabul-Fil to indicate the same superlative purpose. In any case, as soon as the child was born, Aminah sent word to ‘Abdul Muttalibwho immediately came to Aminah replete with feelings of extreme happiness. Aminah presented the newly born child before him and said: “I saw in a dream his name is Muhammad(saw).” Abdul Muttalib took the newly born child into his arms and made his way to the Baitullah [i.e. the House of Allah] where he offered his gratitude to God and named the child Muhammad(saw), meaning the ‘most praiseworthy’. He then brought the child back and happily entrusted him to his mother.4
Historians have attributed many strange occurrences to the birth of the Holy Prophet(saw). For example, it is said that the palace of Chosroes, King of Iran, was struck with a devastating earthquake and that fourteen of his royal galleries collapsed. Furthermore, the fire at ‘The Holy Fire Temple of Persia’, alit for hundreds of years, was suddenly extinguished. Then it is also said that various rivers and fountains became dry, and that even in the very house of Muhammad(saw) many miracles were manifested. However, these narrations are generally weak. There is also a narration, perhaps true, which states that during the time of the birth of Muhammad(saw), the sky was a spectacle of the “breaking” of many stars.5 There is also another narration which states that the young Muhammad(saw) was born naturally circumcised.6 If in fact this is true, it should not cause astonishment, for natural phenomena like this have been witnessed in other children also. Another feature naturally inherited by the Holy Prophet(saw) was an accentuated piece of flesh on the left side of his back, which is well-known among the Muslims as the ‘Seal of Prophethood’.7
Fosterage and Childhood
It was a custom among the nobles of Makkah that mothers did not suckle their own children. Instead, children were normally sent outside the city and were entrusted to Bedouin wet-nurses. The obvious benefits of this were that infants would remain vigorously healthy and grew strong as a result of the pure and unpolluted rural environment. Moreover, they would learn to speak excellent and precise Arabic.
Initially, the young Muhammad(saw) was suckled by his mother and later Thuwaibah also nourished him with her milk. Thuwaibah was a slave-girl who belonged to Abu Lahab, the paternal uncle of Muhammad(saw). Abu Lahab freed her at the birth of his orphan nephew as an expression of his gratitude. It was this very Thuwaibah who suckled Hadhrat Hamzah(ra) as well. Hence, Hamzah(ra), the uncle of Muhammad(saw), also became his foster brother through this relationship of milk. The Holy Prophet(saw) never forgot this relationship. All her life, the Prophet(saw) would always assist Thuwaibah, and even after her death, he inquired whether she had any relatives. It was found that she had no remaining relatives.
After Thuwaibah, the fosterage of Muhammad(saw) was permanently entrusted to Halimah(ra), a noble lady belonging to the people of Hawazin, from the tribe of Bani Sa‘d. Along with other women, she came to Makkah as a wet nurse in search of a child. She was not content in taking an orphan child along with her because her desire was to find a child with a living father, from whom the expectation of reward and veneration would be much higher. Therefore, in the beginning she was rather reluctant in taking the young Muhammad(saw) along with he. However, when no other child could be found and all her companions had already found their respective children, she preferred to take Muhammad(saw)instead of returning empty handed. Nonetheless, Halimah(ra)realised very soon that the child she had brought with her was one of great fortune. She relates:
“Prior to the arrival of Muhammad(saw) we suffered times of hardship and poverty, but immediately after the arrival of the child this poverty was miraculously transformed into prosperity and we began to see blessings in all of our matters.”
Besides Muhammad(saw), another child who was also suckled by Halimah(ra)was ‘Abdullah, who had an older sister by the name of Shima. Shima held Muhammad(saw) very dear to herself.
After two years when the appointed time of fosterage was complete, Halimah(ra) brought the young Muhammad(saw) to Makkah, as was the custom. She had developed such a deep love for the child that it was her heartfelt desire to take him back with her again, if his mother so permitted. Halimah(ra) therefore, requested with great persistence: “Let the child stay with me for some more time, I shall take care of him in every way.” Initially, Aminahrejected the idea, but eventually gave in due to the forceful persistence of Halimah(ra). She also considered that the climate outside Makkah was far more beneficial than that therein. During those days the climate of Makkah was particularly adverse, therefore Aminahhesitantly agreed and Halimah(ra) happily returned home with Muhammad(saw).
Subsequently, Muhammad(saw) remained with Halimah(ra) until he was approximately four years of age, and grew up playing with the young children of the tribe Banu Sa‘d. The language of this tribe was very pure, and eloquent in particular; thus, the young Muhammad(saw) also learned this particular dialect.
Halimah(ra) kept Muhammad(saw) very dear to herself and all the people of this tribe looked upon the boy with special love and affection. However, when Muhammad(saw) was four, an incident occurred which frightened Halimah(ra). Therefore, Halimah(ra) brought Muhammad(saw) back to Makkah and handed him over to his mother. The incident is recorded that on one occasion, Muhammad(saw) and his foster brother were playing together and no adult was present nearby. Suddenly, two men in white cloaks were seen and they took the young Muhammad(saw), lay him on the ground, and made an incision into his chest. Upon witnessing this sight, ‘Abdullah bin Harith, the foster brother of Muhammad(saw), hurriedly ran to his mother and father and informed them: “My brother of the Quraish has been seized by two men who are cutting open his chest.” Upon hearing this news, Harith(ra) and Halimah(ra)ran to the place of the incident. They saw no men standing there but noticed that Muhammad(saw) was standing, in a state of great fear, thus the colour of his face had changed significantly. Halimah(ra) moved forward and took the child into her arms and asked, “My dear son what has happened?” Muhammad(saw) narrated the entire incident and said, “They were searching for something in my chest, which they eventually found and threw out”.8 Then Halimah(ra) and Harith(ra) took Muhammad(saw) into their pavilion and Harith(ra)said to Halimah(ra), “I am afraid that something has happened to this child9, it is only appropriate that you immediately take him to Makkah and deliver him to his mother.” Consequently, Halimah(ra)brought Muhammad(saw) back to Makkah and gave the child to his mother Aminah. Aminah inquired as to the early return, upon which Halimah(ra) narrated the entire story and expressed her fear that perhaps the child had been possessed by an evil spirit or demon. Aminah responded:
“That is not at all possible. My son is of great grandeur. When I was expecting this child, I saw that a light was emitted from within me and spread to far-off lands in every direction.”10
This incident is also supported by a narration in the Sahih Muslim of great detail, where Anas bin Malik(ra) relates:
‘On one occasion the Holy Prophet(saw) was playing with some children. The Angel Gabriel(as) came to him and laid the Holy Prophet(saw) on the ground; thereafter he made an incision into his chest. Then he took the heart out of his chest and extracted something from its core and threw it away. At the same time Gabriel(as) said, “This was the filth of weakness which has now been separated from you.”
After this, Gabriel(as) cleansed the heart of the Holy Prophet(saw) with pure water and placed it back into his chest and once again it was joined together. When the children saw Gabriel(as) laying the Holy Prophet(saw) on the ground and making an incision into his chest, they were greatly frightened and ran to the wet nurse of the Prophet(saw). They said to her, “Someone has murdered Muhammad(saw).” When they all reached the Holy Prophet(saw) the Angel had vanished, and the Prophet(saw) was standing alone in a state of fear.11
By the affrmation of the Sahih Muslim, the narration of Ibn Hisham is further strengthened. Hence, without any powerful refutation we cannot disregard it as weak. Nonetheless, it is obvious that this was a Kashf12, or a divinely inspired vision. Therefore, in the case of Shaqq-e-Sadr13, the absence of any physical signs as Halimah(ra) saw no tangible elements at the scene, proves that this was a spiritual experience, the circle of inclusion of which was also extended to the other children present at the time. Moreover, it is clarified in the occurrence itself that the purpose of this incident was for an Angel incarnate of God, to make an incision into the chest of the young Muhammad(saw),in a world of divine inspiration. He thereby fully removed the taint of weakness from within the young Muhammad(saw). It is evident from authentic Ahadith that during the night of the Mi‘raj14, the Holy Prophet(saw) experienced an occurrence almost identical to the one mentioned above. An angel took the heart of the Holy Prophet(saw) out and cleansed it with the pure water of Zam Zam, and then restored it to its original place.15
At this point, it would be appropriate to mention that Sir William Muir has mentioned this occurrence and remarked maliciously that, God forbid, Muhammad(saw) underwent an epileptic fit. It is impossible for us to halt someone’s tongue; nonetheless, by making such an assertion Mr Muir has most definitely resorted to prejudice of the lowest degree. Firstly, it is a well-established fact that one who suffers from epilepsy possesses a weak physical and mental structure. As far as Muhammad(saw) is concerned, Muir himself admits that Muhammad(saw) was an individual who possessed excellent physical and mental faculties. Aside from this, the narration in itself and the basis upon which this objection is made, refutes the allegation. It is clearly mentioned in the narration that this sight was witnessed by the foster brother of the young Muhammad(saw), who ran to his parents and informed them that his brother of the Quraish [dominant tribe in Makkah at the time], had been laid down by two men in white cloaks and they were slitting open his chest. Is there also a form of epilepsy in which other witnesses can testify to such a sight? Can a person who undergoes an epileptic fit have the ability to think, reflect and recall the fact that someone has laid him on the ground, moreover, that the people around him also see such a vision? Words of this nature are such as none other than a prejudiced man can dare bring to his tongue.
In any case, when Muhammad(saw) was four years of age Halimah(ra) brought the child back and entrusted him to his mother. The four years of service offered by Halimah(ra)were not of insignificance. As far as the Holy Prophet(saw)was concerned, he would never forget even the smallest of services. Therefore, the Holy Prophet(saw) remembered the sincere service of Halimah(ra) all his life, and treated her with kindness of the greatest calibre. Once when the country underwent a famine and Halimah(ra) came to Makkah, the Holy Prophet(saw) gave her forty goats and one camel. During the Prophethood of the Holy Prophet(saw), Halimah(ra) once came to visit. As soon as the Holy Prophet(saw)saw her, he immediately stood up, fervently repeating the words “My mother! My mother!”, and took off the mantle he had upon himself and spread it out before her, so that she could sit upon it. Then, during the Battle of Hunain, when one thousand prisoners of war were captured from the tribe of the Hawazin, the Prophet(saw) released them all for the sake of this very relationship. He did not take even a penny from them as ransom for their freedom16. Moreover, the Holy Prophet(saw) bestowed abundant wealth upon one of his foster sisters, who also happened to be a prisoner of war at that time. There is disagreement regarding the acceptance of Islam by Halimah(ra) and her husband Harith(ra). However, the prevalent notion is that both Halimah(ra) and Harith(ra) became Muslims and thus, died as Muslims. The foster brother of Muhammad(saw), ‘Abdullah, and his sister Shima, also died as Muslims.
Mother’s Guardianship and Travel to Yathrab
When Halimah(ra) brought Muhammad(saw) to his mother, he was approximately four years of age. After this, the child remained in the guardianship of his dear mother. When the young Muhammad(saw) reached the age of six, Aminahtravelled to Yathrab [now Madinah], with the intent of meeting her relatives from the Banu Najjar, and also took Muhammad(saw) along with her. Ummi Aiman also accompanied them. It is quite possible that during this trip, Aminah may have contemplated visiting the tomb of her deceased husband. In any case, she travelled to Yathrab and remained there for one month. The Holy Prophet(saw) remembered this precious time for the rest of his life. After approximately fifty years when he migrated to Madinah, he still showed his Companions the house in which he had resided along with his mother, during his stay in Madinah. He also showed them the place where he used to play with the children of Madinah, and pointed out the pond where he learned to swim.17
References and endnotes
1. The People of the Elephant.
2. Third month in the Islamic calendar.
3. Mahmud Pasha Misri.
4. As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, By Ibni Hisham, Babu Wiladati Rasulillah wa Rida‘atihi, p.129, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, (2001)
5. Sharhu ‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Volume 1, pp.227-230, Babu Min ‘Aja’bi Wiladatihi Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, First Edition (1996)
* Tarikhul-Khamis, vol.1, p.200, Dhikru Ma Waqa‘a Lailata Miladihi, Muwassasatu Shu‘ban, Beirut.
6. Sharhu ‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Volume 1, p.232, Babu Min ‘Aja’bi Wiladatihi Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, First Edition (1996)
* Tarikhul-Khamis, vol.1, p.204, Dhikru Khatanihi, Muwassasatu Shu‘ban, Beirut
7. Sharhu ‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Volume 1, p.226, Babu Min ‘Aja’bi Wiladatihi Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, First Edition (1996)
8. Cease not to forget that Halimah(ra) and Harith(ra) found no blood spilled at the place of this event neither did they find any other physical elements hinting towards the Shaqq-e-Sadr, nor could they find anything extracted from the heart of Muhammad(saw)and thrown out. (Author).
9. In other words the child has been possessed by an evil spirit or demon. (Author)
10. As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, By Ibni Hisham, Babu Wiladati Rasulillah wa Rida‘atihi, p.133, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, (2001).
11. Sahih Muslim, Kitabul-Iman, Babul-Isra’i bi Rasulillahisa ilas-Samawati wa Fardis-Salah, Hadith No. 413.
12. Some readers may be unaware of the term Kashf, hence for their knowledge it is mentioned. Just as at night one witnesses various sightings or visions in one’s sleep and one perceives them to be reality although in actuality it is nothing more than a dream. Similarly, in some cases, visions of this nature are also shown by God to his noble servants in a state of complete wakefulness. In other words a particular state overtakes man while he is awake and as a result he becomes separated from his physical senses (or in some cases whilst still connected to his physical senses) witnesses a peculiar vision. The vision or sight seen in this state of mind is referred to as Kashf. In certain instances during a Kashf the sphere of this vision extends to more than one person and thus others also become influenced by this special sight. Therefore, in addition to the one who directly experiences this divine inspirational sight, other individuals can also partake in the same experience. (Author).
13. Incision of the chest (Publisher).
14. Night of ascension (Publisher).
15. Sahih Bukhari, Kitabu Fada’ilis-Sahabah, Babu Ma Ja’a fl-Mi‘raj, Hadith No. 3887.
16. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, By Ibni Sa‘d, Al-Juzul-Awwal, Dhikru Man Arda‘a Rasulallah wa Tasmiyyati Ikhwatihi wa Akhawatihi minar-Rada‘ah, p.54, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, First Edition (1996)
17. * As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, By Ibni Hisham, Babu Wiladati Rasulillah wa Rida‘atihi, p.134, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, (2001).
* At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, By Ibni Sa‘d, Al-Juzul-Awwal, Dhikru Wafati Aminata Ummi Rasulillahisa, p. 55, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, First Edition (1996).
* Tarikhut-Tabari, vol.2, p. 139, Babu Dhikri Mauladi Rasulillahisa, Darul-Fikr, Beirut, (2002).
His Mother’s Demise
After a stay of approximately one month, Aminah [the Prophet(saw)’s mother]departed on her return journey, but her death was destined to be in a foreign land just as her husband’s had been. She fell ill on the way and passed away at a place known as Abwa’, – and thus was buried there.1 Once in the time of his prophethood, the Holy Prophet(saw) passed by the same location and honoured the grave of his mother by his presence. Upon seeing the grave of his mother, the Prophet(saw)’s eyes welled with tears. When the Companions of the Holy Prophet(saw) saw this sight, they also began to shed tears. The Holy Prophet(saw) addressed his Companions saying: “God has given me permission to visit the tomb of my mother, but He has not permitted me to pray upon it.”2 This does not mean that the mother of the Holy Prophet(saw) would not be forgiven, because this matter rests in the hands of God, and none can draw conclusions regarding it; however, from this instance we find that just as the Holy Prophet(saw) had elaborated upon other occasions, it is not right to pray for the forgiveness of one who dies in a state of idolatry. Instead, the affair of an idolater should be entrusted to God alone.
The mother of Muhammad(saw) passed away, and consequently he became an orphan; without mother or father. It would be no small grief to be absent from home and apart from dear ones at such a young age. It could not be an insignificant grief to lose one’s mother when one’s father had already passed away. Hence, these events left a deep and ever enduring effect on the heart of the Holy Prophet(saw). Undoubtedly, the Prophet(saw) was sent as Rahmatullil-‘Alamin,3 however, due to external causes occurrences of this nature had a very profound influence on the disposition of Muhammad(saw). To some extent, these initial grievances were the reason behind his immense love for the poor and special sympathy for the less fortunate; thus, his nature became exceptionally distinguished. The Holy Qur’an mentions the orphanage of Muhammad(saw) in the following words:
Did He not find thee an orphan and give thee shelter?… So the orphan, oppress not.4
Guardianship of ‘Abdul Muttalib
After the demise of his mother, Muhammad(saw) reached Makkah with his slave Ummi Aiman. This is the same Ummi Aiman who was given to Muhammad(saw) as a female slave through inheritance when his father passed away. When Muhammad(saw) matured, he freed her and would always treat her with much kindness. Ummi Aiman was later married to a freed slave of the Holy Prophet(saw), Zaid bin Harithah, and from this relationship Usamah bin Zaid was born. Ummi Aiman lived even after the death of the Holy Prophet(saw). In any case, after the death of his mother, the young Muhammad(saw) returned to Makkah with Ummi Aiman. Upon reaching there, Abdul Muttalib took Muhammad(saw) directly into his own custodianship. Abdul Muttalib kept Muhammad(saw) very dear to himself. While performing Tawaf of the Ka‘bah, Abdul Muttalib would place the young Muhammad(saw) upon his shoulders. Muhammad(saw) gradually became quite informal with Abdul Muttalib as well. It was the habit of Abdul Muttalib to sit in the courtyard of the Ka‘bah upon a carpet, and none had the courage to sit upon it with him, so much so that even the sons of ‘Abdul Muttalib would sit at some distance. But the young Muhammad(saw) due to his sentiments of love, would sit right beside ‘Abdul Muttalib, and he would always be pleased to see Muhammad(saw). At times, the paternal uncles of Muhammad(saw) would attempt to restrain him from sitting upon their father’s carpet, but Abdul Muttalib would always stop them saying, “Reproach him not.”
Demise of ‘Abdul Muttalib
It was in this very relationship of love that the days of Muhammad(saw) were passing by, when Abdul Muttalib also passed away. As the funeral proceeded, Muhammad(saw) followed with tears flowing from his eyes. This was the third great shock that Muhammad(saw) was made to bear in his childhood. At the time he was eight years of age, and the age of Abdul Muttalib due to varying narrations, is recorded as between 80 to 140 years.5
Abdul Muttalib had many sons from various wives. Among these sons, the most eminent were Harith, Zubair, Abu Talib, Abu Lahab, Abdullah, Abbas and Hamzah. Among them, Abu Talib and Abdullah were of the same mother. Perhaps due to this relationship, upon his deathbed, ‘Abdul Muttalib entrusted the young Muhammad(saw) into the guardianship of Abu Talib, whilst bequeathing him the special care of the child. Thereafter, Muhammad(saw) began to live in the custodianship of Abu Talib. Among the national duties belonging to Abdul Muttalib, the responsibilities of Siqayah [supplying pilgrims with water during the Hajj] and Rifadah [feeding pilgrims during the Hajj] were delegated to his eldest son Zubair. Since this work required significant finances, Zubair found these responsibilities far beyond his capacity and handed them over to Abu Talib. Similarly, Abu Talib was also unable to manage the financial commitment involved, and therefore the task of Rifadah was transferred to the Banu Nawfal. Eventually, Abu Talib handed over the work of Siqayah to his brother Abbas who was considerably wealthy.
At this point, it is necessary to mention that during the lifetime of Abdul Muttalib, the Banu Hashim were extremely dignified and honoured, and possessed an eminent position among all the tribes of the Quraish. But after his demise, no man from the Banu Hashim came forward who could maintain this esteem. Overall power escaped their hands, and gradually the Banu Hashim’s rival tribe, the Banu Umaiyyah, gathered strength.
Guardianship of Abu Talib
Abu Talib acted upon the will of his father with tremendous honesty and justice and held Muhammad(saw) dearer than his own children. He would always keep the child before his eyes and during the night he would usually keep him in his company.
Travel to Syria and the Incident of Bahira the Monk
When Muhammad(saw) was twelve years of age, Abu Talib was required to travel to Syria with a mercantile caravan. Since the travel was long and difficult, Abu Talib decided to leave Muhammad(saw) behind in Makkah. However, for young Muhammad(saw) the thought of separation from Abu Talib was too painful to bear. Therefore, at the time of departure overcome by his emotions of love, the child clung to Abu Talib and began to weep. When Abu Talib witnessed this he was moved and decided to take the young Muhammad(saw) along.
To the south of Syria there is a very well known place called Busra, where a very strange incident took place. A Christian Monk resided there by the name of Bahira. When the caravan of the Quraish passed by this monk’s holy abode, he witnessed all the rocks and plants falling into prostration simultaneously. In the light and spirit of divine scriptures, he was aware that a prophet was to be raised, and due to his deep insight, he concluded that this very prophet was present in the caravan. Hence, he was able to recognise Muhammad(saw). The Monk informed Abu Talib of this fact, and advised him to protect the young Muhammad(saw) from the evil designs of the Ahl-e-Kitab [People of the Book].
In the spirit of ‘Ilm-e-Riwayat, this particular narration is rather weak. However, if such an instance did in fact occur it should not be the cause of surprise. If this event did actually occur, the prostration of trees would be considered a Divinely inspired sight of the monk, which is not unusual in relation to the status of the Holy Prophet(saw).
Has Islam been influenced by Christianity?
At this point it is necessary to mention that Sir William Muir, along with various other non-Muslim historians, have used the incident of Bahira the Monk and various other occurrences in which Muhammad(saw) met Christians prior to prophethood, in order to falsely conclude that the Holy Prophet(saw)’s claim to prophethood was as a result of the direct influence of Christianity. Furthermore, his teachings have also been attributed to this influence. However, this notion is completely false and is contrary to facts. Anyone who possesses even little knowledge of the life and teachings of the Holy Prophet(saw), and whose eyes are not shrouded by the veil of prejudice, cannot be taken in by such allegations. It is definitely true that every sensible human being analyses his surroundings in accordance with his capacities. Therefore, it is quite natural to acquire a good or bad impression of one’s environment, its virtues and vices.
Nonetheless, prior to his prophethood, the Holy Prophet(saw) perhaps came across Christianity, and may have had the opportunity to hear its teachings as well. Therefore, naturally the heart of Muhammad(saw) may have developed impressions with respect to the merits and demerits of Christianity. However, it is definitely erroneous and baseless to deduce the notion that the prophethood and teachings of the Holy Prophet(saw) are a direct result of those impressions. Firstly, it cannot be firmly established that Muhammad(saw) met any Christian prior to his prophethood in a manner that might have left very deep and permanent impressions on his nature. If hypothetically there was any influence upon the Prophet(saw) in regards to Christianity, it was, most certainly an unfavourable one. Every individual is well-aware of the fact that the teachings brought by the Holy Prophet(saw) completely differ from Christianity on many fundamental issues. For example, at the present time the religion of Christianity is primarily based upon the doctrine of the divinity of Jesus(as), trinity and atonement. However, even a child knows well that the Holy Qur’an has expressed strong aversion to these three basic concepts. So much so, that while alluding to the supposed “Godship” and “sonship” of the Messiah, the words used are that this doctrine is such that due to this incredible belief the heavens and the earth should burst.6 It is nothing more than a desperate and futile attempt to falsely associate the teachings of Islam with Christianity.
The matter remaining is that the Holy Qur’an has praised the Messiah. This fact does not serve as a supporting argument either. Firstly, the praise bestowed upon the Messiah is rendered whilst acknowledging him as a prophet, and not the son of God nor God himself as the Christian faith asserts. Secondly, this praise is not unique to the Messiah. The Holy Qur’an has praised all the prophets of the past and has declared them to be righteous and respectable personalities. As a matter of fact, the Holy Qur’an has stressed the point that prophets of God were sent to every nation of the world.7 By doing so, the Qur’an has firmly established a sense of respect in the hearts of all Muslims for the saints of every nation. However, it is obvious that the “godship” of the Messiah and other principles of Christianity have been firmly rejected by Islam. Moreover, the Messiah has not been given a rank higher than that of a man and a prophet who went through the days of his life and passed away, as did the prophets before him. Hence, the allegation that Islam was influenced by Christianity is absolutely false and unfounded.
Moreover, if it is argued that various religious and moral teachings of Christianity are also common to Islam, which gives rise to its ideology, and that perhaps Islam has derived these teachings from Christianity, this can be proven to be a baseless allegation as well. Firstly, consider the fact that a better part of the principal teachings of present-day Christianity differ completely from those of Islam. The mere fact that the various ancillary elements of these two teachings resemble one another is not sufficient evidence to support the fact that one has been derived from the other. Secondly, when Islam declares the Messiah a chosen messenger of God and that it, in itself, also claims to have originated from God, it is inevitable that since both have sprouted from a common source, it was only logical that Islam and Christianity should resemble each other in certain aspects. Indeed, the principles of guidance are the same for every age and every nation. Thirdly, the Holy Qur’an itself claims that it has consolidated the everlasting truths of all the teachings that have come to pass. The Holy Qur’an states (i.e., therein are the everlasting teachings)8, which indicates that the Qur’an comprises all the wise and eternal aspects of past scriptures. Hence, from this perspective also, well, no distinction of Christianity can be established.
At this point, it is necessary to mention that the Holy Qur’an has presented this unique feature, that all the everlasting truths, wisdoms and eternal teachings of past scriptures are gathered in it, as an expression of its utmost perfection. From this perspective, the Holy Qur’an has been given similitude to the honey bee [Ch.16:Vs.69-70], which extracts the fine essence of various plants to produce an extremely exquisite product through a complex chemical process. Although it is the essence of various plants, it evolves into a new creation that cannot be attributed to any specific flower or plant. Moreover, the Holy Qur’an has not only derived the wise teachings of past scriptures, but, being an everlasting law of conduct, has also contributed new subtleties in light of universal requirements that transcend time, thus presenting a perfect and eternal law. The Holy Qur’an has been endowed with such qualities that, in the similitude of this physical world, it possesses the hidden opulence to provide for all the religious requirements of mankind as they arise, until the end of time. In reality the Holy Qur’an is a compendium of the following teachings:
Those aspects of past scriptures, which possess the ability to become part of an everlasting and universal law.
In light of the future requirements of the various nations of the world, it possesses a permanent teaching which enables one to fulfil Huququl-‘Ibad [the rights of mankind] and Huququllah [the rights of God]. It possesses the teachings necessary for the success and progression in every aspect of one’s moral and spiritual life until the Day of Judgement.
Furthermore, the notion that the Holy Qur’an or the prophethood of the Holy Prophet(saw) was a result of the teachings of Christianity or another faith, is absolutely erroneous and vain. A statement of this nature can be made only by one who has absolutely no knowledge of Islamic history and teachings. To attribute Islamic teachings particularly to the encounter with Bahira the Monk as mentioned above, is a ridiculous statement which cannot be uttered by any wise individual.
Pasturing of Goats by Muhammad(saw)
After he returned from his journey to Syria, Muhammad(saw) continued to reside with Abu Talib. It was a custom among the Arabs that children were given the responsibility of tending the flock. Hence, the young Muhammad(saw) also undertook the task of pasturing goats and performed this task on various occasions. In the time of his prophethood, the Holy Prophet(saw) would say that: “The pasturing of goats is the tradition of the prophet.9 and I too have pastured goats.” On one occasion, while travelling, the Companions of the Holy Prophet(saw) were gathering some fruit upon which the Prophet(saw) said, “Search for this particular fruit in darker colour, for when I used to tend to the goats I have found through experience, that the darker its shade of black, the finer it proves to be .”10
God’s Protection from Evil
On one night during the childhood of Muhammad(saw), he requested his companion, who was also a partner in grazing goats, “Tend to my flock so that I may go to the city in order to view the nightly gathering of the people”. In those days, it was a custom of the Arabs to gather at a single location whereafter they would relate stories and share various forms of poetry. On various occasions, the whole night would be consumed in these gatherings. In his childhood curiosity, Muhammad(saw) also ventured out to observe one of these spectacles. However, God the Almighty disliked the idea that His Khatamun-Nabiyyin [Seal of the Prophets]partake of such nonsense. Therefore, once Muhammad(saw) departed for such a gathering but fell asleep en-route and remained in a state of sleep until dawn. The young Muhammad(saw) intended to witness a similar gathering a second time; however, the unseen hand prohibited him this time also. During the time of his prophethood, the Holy Prophet(saw) said, “I intended only twice, in the entirety of my life, to observe such a gathering, but I was restrained both times.”11
The Arabs were an excessively combatant nation and it was considered an honour to fight to death. It was due to this very reason that even upon trivial differences the sword was instantly unsheathed. Whenever this happened, the Arabs would fill a large goblet with blood and dip their fingers in it whilst taking an oath that they should die on the battlefield but would never retreat from combat. There existed constant enmity between various tribes as every individual tribe considered it absolutely obligatory to safeguard its reputation and grandeur. In carnivals, etc., where diverse types of people gathered together, quarrelling and fighting was nothing out of the ordinary.
It was during the childhood of Muhammad(saw) that when the ‘Ukaz Carnival was being held, in a pleasant valley situated to the east of Makkah at a distance of approximately three days, provocation was spurred between the tribes of the Qais Ailan and Banu Kinanah. At that time, the various tribes of the Qais Ailan resided in the south-east, between Makkah and Ta’if. For some time, the tribal leaders of both parties successfully managed to avert warfare. This war is known as Harb-e-Fijar in history, which means ‘The Unlawful War’, because this war commenced in the sacred month when fighting was forbidden, according to ancient custom.
This war was fought with such vigour and violent fervour, that it possesses distinct notoriety among the wars of the Jahiliyyah. The Banu Kinanah paired with the Quraish, and on the opposing side was the Qais Ailan allied with the Hawazin. The most dangerous battle of this war was the last one, referred to as the fourth battle of the Harb-e-Fijar. The passion with which this last fight was such that some commanders had themselves tied to the battleground with ropes, thus intentionally leaving themselves no means of retreat even if desired. During the initial portion of the day the Qais ‘Ailan led in battle, however towards the end of the day the Banu Kinanah over their opponents. After the defeat of the Qais Ailan, both parties were reconciled in a concord of friendship.
Young Muhammad(saw) also participated in this war. However, from various narrations it is found that Muhammad(saw) did not actively engage himself in battle. Instead, his participation was merely limited to the fact that he was a part of the army, and would hand over arrows to his paternal uncle. At the time Muhammad(saw) was approximately twenty years old. In this battle every tribe had its own commander. Therefore, the Banu Hashim was under the command of Zubair bin Abdul Muttalib; however, the commander-in-chief of the entire army of the Banu Kinanah was Harb bin Umaiyyah, who was the father of Abu Sufyan and the paternal grandfather of Amir Mu’awiyah.12
In the past, various noble-hearted individuals of Arabia thought to establish a mutual agreement. This agreement stated that the rights of the oppressed would be protected, and that the oppressor would be restrained from injustice. In the Arabic language, the word fadl also refers to one’s ‘right’, which transforms into fudul when expressed in plural. This is why the agreement was named the Hilful-Fudul [i.e. Confederacy of Rights]. In accordance with other narrations, it is also said that since the names of the proponents of this confederacy contained the word fadl, this agreement was named Hilful-Fudul.13 In any case, after the infamous Harb-e-Fijar, Zubair bin Abdul Muttalib, a paternal uncle of Muhammad(saw), was most probably inspired by this war and proposed to revive this agreement once more . Therefore, representatives from the different tribes of the Quraish gathered at the home of Abdullah bin Jad‘an, where arrangements for a feast had been made. All the representatives unanimously took an oath that they would forever restrain injustice, and assist the oppressed. The ones who took part in this agreement included; the Banu Hashim, Banu Muttalib14, Banu Asad, Banu Zuhrah and Banu Yatim.
Muhammad(saw) was also present on this occasion and joined in the agreement. Once during the time of his prophethood, the Holy Prophet(saw) said: “In the house of ‘Abdullah bin Jad‘an, I once partook in such an oath that even if I was called to it today, in the age of Islam, I would present myself saying, here I am to do thy undertaking”. Perhaps it was due to the influence of these deep sentiments that during the time of Amir Mu’awiyah, when his nephew Walid bin ‘Utbah bin Abu Sufyan, the governor of Madinah, usurped one of the rights of Hadhrat Husain bin Ali bin Abi Talib(ra), Hadhrat Husain(ra) said, “By God if Walid does not return my due right, I shall stand before Masjid-e-Nabawi [the Prophet’s Mosque’ in Madinah], with my sword in hand, calling people towards the Hilful-Fudul.” When Abdullah bin Zubair heard of this, he said, “If Husainra calls me to this oath, I shall surely present myself saying, here I am to do thy undertaking, and we will either acquire his right or all of us shall perish in this endeavour.” Many other individuals also repeated these words upon which Walid’s evil intentions were suppressed, and he eventually returned the right of Hadhrat Husain(ra).15 It should be kept in mind that Abdullah bin Zubair was of the Banu Asad tribe, which took part in the Hilful-Fudul.
1. This narration is generally that of most historians. Some narrations state that Aminah bint Wahab passed away in Makkah, and that her grave is situated in the Valley of Hujun, Makkah. (Author)
2. * Sahih Muslim, Kitabul-Jana’iz, Babu Isti’zanin-Nabi(saw) Rabbahu ‘Azzawajal fi Ziyarati Qabri Ummihi, Hadith No 2258
* Sunan Ibni Majah, Kitabul-Jana’iz, Babu Ma Ja’af Ziyarati Quburil-Mushrikin, Hadith No. 1572
3. A mercy for all peoples (publisher)
5. At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, By Ibni Sa‘d, Al-Juzul-Awwal, Babu Dhikri Dammi ‘Abdil-Muttalib Rasulallahi(saw) ilaihi ba‘da Wafati Ummihi wa Dhikri Wafati ‘Abdil-Muttalib wa Wasiyyati Abi Talib bi Rasulillahi(saw), p.56, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, First Edition (1996)
9. From this it can be concluded that in a way the work of a prophet is like that of a shepherd. Therefore, by assigning prophets the work of shepherds in their young age, God indicates through depicted foreshadowing that they should soon prepare themselves to tend to the flocks of humanity. (Author)
10. Sahih Bukhari, Kitabu Ahadithil-Anbiya’, Babu Ya‘kifūna ‘ala Asnamin lahum, Hadith No. 3406
11. Tarikhut-Tabari, vol.2, p. 207, Babu Dhikri Rasulillahi(saw) wa Asbabihi, Darul-Fikr, Beirut, (2002)
12. As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, By Ibni Hisham, Babu Harbil-Fijar, pp. 146-148, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, (2001)
13. Raudul-Anf, By Imam Suhail, Volume 1, p. 242, Babu Hilfil-Fudul, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, (2001)
14. Bear in mind that the Banu Nawfal and Banu Umaiyyah remained separated from the Banu Hashim in this instance (Author)
15. As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, By Ibni Hisham, Babu Bābu Hilfil-Fudul, p.112, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, (2001)
His Blessed Appearance
Muhammad(saw) had now reached adulthood and his physical development was complete. Therefore, at this point it would be relevant to mention his appearance. It is recorded that Muhammad(saw) was of moderate height, and had an incredibly handsome complexion. He was not excessively white in shade, such as would appear displeasing to the eye, nor was he of a dark brown complexion. Instead, he was slightly fairer than dark brown. The hair on his head was not completely straight, rather it was slightly curled. His beard was thick and beautiful. He possessed a well balanced body. His skin was delicate and soft. From his body and sweat diffused a delightful fragrance. He had a large head and was broad-chested. His hands and feet were relatively fleshy. His palms were wide and his face was round. He possessed a broad forehead and a beautiful nose which appeared slightly risen. He possessed sparkling black eyes, adorned with long eyelashes. He walked swiftly, but in a dignified manner. His style of conversation was soft and gentle, such as if the listener desired he could count his words. In a state of anger his face would turn red, and in times of happiness it would gleam brilliantly.1
A famous historian from England Sir William Muir, mentions the appearance of Muhammad(saw) in the following words:
‘His commanding mien inspired the stranger with an undefined and indescribable awe; but on closer intimacy, apprehension and fear gave place to intimacy and love.’2
As it has already been mentioned, Muhammad(saw) had now reached maturity, and the time had come for him to stand on his own feet. Moreover, since Abu Talib’s financial condition was not very stable; there was a genuine need for Muhammad(saw) to enter into an occupation, so as to alleviate the burden of his uncle. Hence, upon the desire and encouragement of Abu Talib, Muhammad(saw) began to work in trade and commerce.
Numerous trade caravans used to leave Makkah for diverse regions. From the south in Yemen and to the north in Syria, formal trade had been established. In addition to this, commerce also took place with Bahrain. Muhammad(saw) travelled to all of these places for commerce.3 Every time Muhammad(saw) would fulfill his obligations with remarkable honesty, trust, grace and skill. In Makkah also, everyone who dealt with Muhammad(saw) would frequently praise him. Thus, when Sa’ib, a Companion of the Holy Prophet(saw), accepted Islam and when people praised Sa’ib before the Holy Prophet(saw) the Prophet(saw) said; “I am more acquainted with him than you”. At this point Sa’ib responded, “Indeed, O Holy Prophet(saw), may my father and mother be an offering! You were once my partner in business and you were moral and pure in all your dealings.”4
‘Abdullah bin Abil-Hamsa’ was another companion who narrates:
‘Prior to the commencement of the divine mission of the Prophet(saw), I dealt with him in a business transaction after which I owed the Prophet(saw) his remaining dues. I told the Prophet(saw) to wait there while I returned shortly. However, I forgot and remembered after three days. When I returned to the meeting place, the Prophet(saw) was still there. The Prophet(saw) said nothing more to me than, ‘You have subjected me to an inconvenience as I have been waiting for you for the past three days.’
The intent of this narration is not to imply that Muhammad(saw) waited in the same place for three days continuously. Instead, its meaning is that Muhammad(saw) would return to the same place repeatedly, and would wait for many hours whilst expecting the return of Abdullah, so that his business partner would not be put under any burden as a result of his absence.5
It is due to such incidents that Muhammad(saw) became renowned as Amin [trustworthy], among the Makkans. Moreover, as a result of his honesty, he was greatly revered in Makkah and was known as an exceptionally righteous individual, who always spoke the truth.6
The involvement of Muhammad(saw) in business commenced when he was approximately 25 years of age. Khadijah bint Khuwailid of the Banu Asad clan was an exceedingly noble and wealthy lady, who possessed a significant market share in the trade and commerce of Makkah. She sent Muhammad(saw) to Syria with her commercial goods and provided the services of her slave – Maysarah, who accompanied Muhammad(saw) during travel. Due to the diligence, blessings and honesty of Muhammad(saw), God the Almighty blessed this trade venture extraordinarily, and much profit was generated. Hence, he returned home from his mission with great success. In the same manner, Muhammad(saw) undertook two or three other trade expeditions to other regions as well.
Marriage to Hadhrat Khadijah(ra)
Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) was a widow with children and had married twice, however both of her husbands had passed away. She was a very revered, wealthy, and noble woman. Due to her noble character she was given the title Tahirah [pure], which became very well known and was recognised throughout Makkah.7 It is for this reason that many people of Makkah sent proposals of marriage to her, but she declined them all. When she had the opportunity to deal with Muhammad(saw) she witnessed his great moral qualities and capabilities, and also found her slave Maysarah overflowing with praise for him; she sent a marriage proposal to Muhammad(saw) herself. After consulting with Abu Talib, Muhammad(saw) accepted this proposal. The relatives of Muhammad(saw) and Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) were gathered, and the marriage vows were taken at a dowry of five hundred Dirham. At the time Muhammad(saw) was 25 years of age and Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) was 40. In other words, Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) was 15 years older than Muhammad(saw). At the time of the marriage of Hadhrat Khadijah(ra), her father Khuwailid bin Asad had passed away, so her uncle ‘Umar bin Asad took part in the marriage on his behalf.8
Children of Muhammad(saw)
All the children of Muhammad(saw) were from Khadijah(ra) except Ibrahim(ra), who was conceived by Mariah Al-Qibtiyyah(ra), during the latter age of Muhammad(saw). From Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) Muhammad(saw) was blessed with three sons, Qasim(ra), Tahir(ra) and Tayyab(ra). In some narrations, a young boy named ‘Abdullah(as) is also mentioned. However, it is a generally accepted notion that ‘Abdullah(ra) was the second name given to Tayyab(ra). Among his daughters were Zainab(ra), Ruqayyah(ra), Umm Kulthum(ra) and Fatimah(ra). All the children of Muhammad(saw) from his wife Khadijah(ra), were born prior to his claim to prophethood, and thus according to the Arabian custom Muhammad(saw) received the appellation Abul-Qasim [the father of Qasim], after the name of his eldest son – Qasim(ra).
All sons of Muhammad(saw) passed away in childhood. However, all of his daughters grew to adulthood and accepted Islam. The progeny of none of his daughters lived on except for his youngest daughter, Fatimat-uz-Zahra(ra). His eldest daughter, Zainab(ra), was married to Abul-‘As bin Rabi‘, who was one of the relatives of Hadhrat Khadijah(ra). Zainab(ra) bore Abul-‘As a son named ‘Ali and a daughter named ’Umamah(ra). The son died in infancy but the daughter grew old and was married to Hadhrat ‘Ali(ra), after the demise of Hadhrat Fatimah(ra). However, the progeny of ’Umamah (ra) did not live on.
Muhammad(saw) held ‘Umamah(ra) very dear to himself. Abul-‘Asra did not accept Islam for many years after the Hijrah to Madinah. Due to this fact, Zainab(ra) was subjected to various hardships. Zainab(ra) passed away in the life time of the Holy Prophet(saw).
Ruqayyah(ra) and Umm Kulthum(ra) were married to the two sons of the paternal uncle of Muhammad(saw), named Abu Lahab. Their names were ‘Utbah and ‘Utaibah. However, in the age of Islam when Abu Lahab began to fiercely oppose the Prophet(saw) their marriages were annulled prior to their finalisation. After this Ruqayyah(ra) and Umm Kulthum(ra) both tied a marriage knot with Hadhrat ‘Uthman bin Affan(ra) , one after the other. This is why he is also referred to as Dhun-Nurain, which means ‘the Possessor of Two Lights’. However, the progeny of both these noble ladies did not advance. Ruqayyah(ra), had a son Abdullah(ra) who passed away, and Umm Kulthum(ra) had no children. Ruqayyah(ra) passed away during the time period of the Battle of Badr, and Umm Kulthum(ra) died after the Fall of Makkah.
Fatimah, the youngest daughter of Muhammad(saw), was most dear to him. After the migration, she was given in marriage to Hadhrat ‘Ali(ra). From him two sons – Hassan(ra) and Hussain(ra) were born. Their descendants are known as ‘Syed’. Hadhrat Fatimah passed away six months after the demise of the Holy Prophet(saw).9 The children of Hadhrat Khadijah(ra) from her first two husbands were two sons named Hind and Halah, as well as a daughter named Hind. By the grace of God, all of them accepted Islam.
Reconstruction of the Ka‘bah
The event of the reconstruction of the Ka‘bah has been discussed to some extent earlier. Since the structure of the Ka‘bah was damaged due to an unforeseen occurrence, the Quraish intended to demolish it and begin reconstruct it anew. However, in initiating this task all were hesitant. Since the Ka‘bah was the House of God, they feared a calamity might afflict the people of Makkah, as a consequence. At last, Walid bin Mughirah who was quite aged, and was one of the leaders of the Quraish, began this work. The people waited for one night so as to ensure that no affliction befell Walid bin Mughirah. When they were assured that no harm had come to him, all joined together in performing this blessed task. Whilst demolishing the old structure the Makkans reached the foundations laid by Abraham(as). Here, they came to a halt and began the reconstruction upon the original foundations. Coincidentally, it so happened that a ship was wrecked upon the coast around this time, and its wood was purchased by the Quraish. However, the wood was not sufficient for the complete construction of the roof. Hence, as previously mentioned, the Quraish were unable to fully erect this new structure upon the foundations laid by Abraham(as), Khalilullah. Instead, a space of approximately three and a half yards was left incomplete to one side. Various other alterations were also made by the Quraish; however, these have already been mentioned, hence repetition is unnecessary.
During the reconstruction of the Ka‘bah, when the Quraish reached the place of the Al-Hajar-al-Aswad, the tribes among the Quraish fell into a vehement dispute in regards to which tribe should place the stone in its permanent position. Naturally, every tribe longed for this honour, so much so, that people prepared themselves to take up arms and some according to the custom of the Jahiliyyah, filled goblets with blood and drenched their fingers into it, whilst taking firm oaths that they would die in battle lest this honour be taken away from their tribe. Due to this dispute, the construction of the Ka‘bah was brought to a halt for many days. At last, Abu Umaiyyah bin Mughirah presented a solution; whosoever was first seen entering the Haram first before anyone else the following morning, would be appointed as arbitrator upon them, and would thus determine the matter. The decree of God was such that when eyelids opened the next morning, all eyes noticed Muhammad(saw), entering the Haram. When they saw Muhammad(saw), the Makkans unanimously cried out “Amin! Amin! [the Trustworthy]” and said, “We are content with his decision”. As Muhammad(saw) moved closer, the matter was presented before him for judgement. By the succour of Allah, Muhammad(saw) resolved the matter in such a way as stunned the leaders of the Quraish, who cheered in acclamation. Muhammad(saw) took his mantle and placed the black stone upon it. Then he handed the corners of this cloth to all the leaders of the Quraish and ordered them to lift up the stone simultaneously. Therefore, everyone lifted up the cloth, and none harboured feelings of resentment. This occurrence was also an allegorical reference by God to the fact that the tribal leaders of the Quraish, who stood upon the brink of war, would now be united upon a focal point by that holy personage. When the black stone was brought before its original resting point, Muhammad(saw) took hold of it in his blessed hands and positioned it in its place.10 As mentioned earlier, this occurrence was an allegorical reference to the fact that soon, the corner stone of the edifice of prophethood, would be established upon its rightful place by Muhammad(saw) – the Messenger of God.11
As far as the date of the construction of the Ka‘bah is concerned, historians merely state that this incident occurred when Muhammad(saw) was 35 years of age. However, if the conditions of those times are kept in mind whilst analysing the situation, it can be concluded that a substantial time would have been required to collect the raw material for the new building, and to demolish the old. Therefore, the most conceivable theory is that the preparation of this work had begun in the primary years of the life of Muhammad. Moreover, the raw materials such as stone and wood, were already being gathered gradually. There is a Sahih [authentic] narration which states that:
‘Once the Prophet(saw) was gathering stones for the reconstruction of the Ka‘bah when his uncle ‘Abbas said, “O Nephew! Place your waist cloth on your shoulder so that you are not scraped by stones”. The Holy Prophet(saw) did comply with his uncle’s order but since a portion of his parts of concealment became exposed, he fell to the ground in shame, his eyes were petrified and he hurriedly cried out, “My garment! My garment!”, until the Prophet(saw) was able to arrange his clothes.’12
This incident is such as can be attributed only to the early years of Muhammad(saw). Moreover, past historians have also written that this occurrence is from the young age of Muhammad(saw).13 However, there is no doubt that the instance of Muhammad(saw) assuming the role of an ‘arbitrator’ in regard to the placement of the sacred black stone, happened in a latter period of his life. This is because it has been narrated that when the people witnessed Muhammad(saw) enter the Ka‘bah they cried out the words, “Amin! Amin!” It is evident that Muhammad(saw) gained this honourable title only after his honesty and trustworthiness in daily affairs had become manifest and was accepted as clearly as is the light of day.
1 Sahih Al-Bukhari, Kitabul-Manaqib, Babu Sifatin-Nabisa, Hadith No.3547-3548
* Shama’ilun-Nabawiyyah, by Imam Tirmidhi, Hadith No.8, Babu Ma Ja’a fi Khalqi Rasulillahi(saw), Darul-Kutubil-‘Arabi, Beirut, (1998)
2 Life of ‘Mahomet’, By Sir William Muir, p.27, London Smith, Elder & Co. 1978
3 Siratun-Nabisa, by ‘Allamah Shibli Nu‘mani, vol.1, pp.185-190, Seventh Edition (1965)
4 Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitabul-Adab, Babu fi Karahiyyatil-Mira’, Hadith No. 4836
5 Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitabul-Adab, Babu fil-‘Iddah, Hadith No.4996
6 As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, by Ibn Hisham, Babu Qissati Bahira, p.145, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, (2001)
7 Sharhu ‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, vol.1, Babu Tazawwujihi ‘alaihis-salami min Khadijata binti Khuwailid, p.373, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, First Edition (1996)
8 * At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, by Ibni Sa‘d, Al-Juz’ul-Awwal, Dhikru Tazwiji Rasulillahi(saw) Khadijata binti Khuwailid, pp.62-63, Daru Ihya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, First Edition (1996)
* Ar-Raudul-Anf, By Imam Suhail, vol.1, pp.324-325, Babu Tazwiji Rasulillāhisa Khadijahra, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut.
9 * As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, By Ibn Hisham, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, (2001)
* At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, By Ibn Sa‘d, Volume 8, Dhikru Banati Rasulillahisa – Fatimata binti Rasulillahsa, p.257, Darul-Iya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, First Edition (1996)
* Sharhu ‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, vol.4, p. 336, Babun fi Dhikri Auladihil-Kiram, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, First Edition (1996)
10 * Tarikhut-Tabari, Vol.2, p. 213, Babu Dhikri Baqil-Akhbari ‘Anil-Ka’ini Min ‘Amri Rasulillahi(saw) Qabla An-Yunabba’a, Darul-Fikr, Beirut, (2002)
* As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, by Ibni Hisham, Babu Hadithi Bunyanil-Ka‘bati wa Hukmi Rasulillahisa Baina Quraishin fi Wad‘il-Hajr, p. 155, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, (2001)
* At-Tabaqatul-Kubra, By Ibni Sa‘d, Al-Juzul-Awwal, Dhikru Hadiri Rasulillahi(saw) Hadma Quraishil-Ka‘bata wa Bana’uha, p.69, Dārul-Iya’it-Turathil-‘Arabi, Beirut, First Edition (1996)
* Sharhu ‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Babu Bunyanil-Quraishil-Ka‘bah, Vol.1, pp.381-382, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, First Edition (1996)
* Tarikhul-Khamis, vol.1, p.115, Baqiyyatu Akhbari Bana’il-Ka‘bah, Muwassasatu Shu‘ban, Beirut
11 Psalm (118:22)
12 Sahih Al-Bukhari, Kitabu Fada’ilis-Sahabah, Babu Bunyanil-Ka‘bah, Hadith No.3829
13 * As-Siratun-Nabawiyyah, by Ibni Hisham, Babu Qissati Bahira, p.146, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, (2001)
* Sharhu ‘Allamatiz-Zarqani ‘alal-Mawahibil-Ladunniyyah, Babu Bunyanil-Quraishil-Ka‘bah, vol.1, pp.383, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, First Edition (1996)
* Raudul-Anf, by Imam Suhail, vol.1, p.318, Babu Qissati Bahira, Darul-Kutubil-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut